The district of Patna is well served by a network of roads. National Highway No.- 31 passes through Danapur, Patna and Patna City. While one branch goes to Barauni via Barh, another proceeds to Nawada via Bihar. All the sub-divisional headquarters of the district (except the newly created subdivision of Masaurhi) are situated on this National Highway which provides the road link between North and South Bihar. Bodhgaya, Rajgir, Ranchi, Siliguri are conveniently located by road to Patna. Intra-city road transportation is also good in Patna.
The main line of the East Central Railway passes through the entire length of the district running parallel to the Ganga. There are three railway lines running across the district from north to south viz., the Patna Gaya Branch line the Fatwah-Islampur Light Railway and the Bakhtiarpur-Rajgir Branch line. Patna Junction is the principal railway station which is located in the town and links all the key cities of India through the network of express and super fast trains. The various cities connected with Patna are Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Varanasi, Amritsar, Bangalore, Lucknow and Chennai.
Patna has excellent air connection to many important Indian cities like, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata. Several Airlines serve this airport with regular flights. Patna Airport is known as Jaiprakash Narayan International Airport. It is named after “Lok Nayak” Jayaprakash Narayan (1902–1979), an Indian independence activist and political leader.
The Ganges is navigable through out the year and there is considerable boat traffic for transporting cargo. The smaller rivers, e.g., Punpun and Dardha become navigable only during the rains when they are used for transporting agricultural produce to the grain market at Fatwah.